Selected Bibliography

Preservation, Conservation, and Management of Cemeteries and Landscapes

Anson-Cartwright, Tamara, ed. Landscape of Memories: A Guide for Conserving Historic Cemeteries. Toronto: Ministry of Citizenship, Culture and Recreation, 1997.

Boston Parks and Recreation. The Boston Experience: A Manual for Historic Burying Grounds Preservation. 2nd ed. Boston: Boston Parks and Recreation, 1989.

Carmack, Sharon DeBartolo. Your Guide to Cemetery Research. Cincinnati, Ohio: Betterway Books, 2002.

Farber, Jessie Lie. Recommendations for the Care of Old Gravestones. AGS Field Guide No.15. Greenfield, MA: Association for Gravestone Studies, 2003.

Haskell, Theodore J. Municipal Cemetery Management for Park and Recreation Departments. Washington, DC: National Recreation and Park Association, 1968.

Keller, J. Timothy and Genevieve P. How to Evaluate and Nominate Designed Historic Landscapes. National Register Bulletin 18. Washington, DC:US Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1994.

King, Gregg, Susan Kosky, Kathleen Glynn and Gladys Saborio. Michigan Historic Cemetery Preservation Manual. Lansing: Michigan State Historic Preservation Office, 2004.

Lapin, Harvey I. "Charitable Foundations: Establishing and Operating a Charitable Cemetery Entity." American Cemetery, 78 (August 2006): 14-19.

London, Mark. Masonry: How to Care for Old and Historic Brick and Stone. Washington, DC: Preservation Press, 1986.

Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection. Preservation Guidelines for Municipally Owned Historic Burial Grounds and Cemeteries. 2nd ed. Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, 2002.

Matero, Frank G., et al. A Conservation Program for Louisiana's Above Ground Cemeteries. New York: The Center for Preservation Research, 1987.

Matero, Frank G. and Judy Peters. "Survey Methodology for the Preservation of Historic Burial Grounds and Cemeteries." APT Bulletin 34 (2003): 37-45.

Matero, Frank G., S. Curtis, J. Hinchman and Judy Peters. St. Louis Cemetery No. 1: Guidelines for Preservation and Restoration, 2002.

McKee, Harley J. Introduction to Early American Masonry, Stone, Brick, Mortar and Plaster. Washington, DC: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1973.

McGahee, Susan M. and Mary W. Edmunds. South Carolina's Historic Cemeteries: A Preservation Handbook. Columbia: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1997.

Meyer, Lance R. The Care of Old Cemeteries and Gravestones. AGS Field Guide No. 12. Greenfield, MA: Association for Gravestone Studies, 2003.

National Trust for Australia (NSW). Guidelines for Cemetery Conservation .

New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Preserving Historic Cemeteries: New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission Gravestone Project. 2nd ed. New York: New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, 1989.

Olin Partnership. " The Woodlands: Landscape Preservation and Enhancement Strategy." Philadelphia, March 2003.

__________. "The Woodlands: A Preliminary Landscape Master Plan." Philadelphia, November 2001.

Potter, Elizabeth Walton and Beth M. Boland. Guidelines for Evaluating and Registering Cemeteries and Burial Places. National Register Bulletin 41. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, NPS, 1992.

Rhoads, Ann Fowler and Timothy A. Block. The Plants of Pennsylvania, an Illustrated Manual. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

_______. Trees of Pennsylvania, A Complete Reference Guide. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005.

Strangstad, Lynette. A Graveyard Preservation Primer. Nashville: The American Association for State and Local History in cooperation with the Association for Gravestone Studies, 1988.

Strangstad, Lynette. Preservation of Historic Burial Grounds. Preservation Information Booklet. Washington, DC: National Trust for Historic Preservation, nd.

Texas Historical Commission. Texas Preservation Guidelines:Preserving Historic Cemeteries. Huston: Texas Historical Commission, 2001.

The Cemetery Handbook: A Manual of Useful Information on Cemetery Development and Management. Chicago: Allied Arts, 1921.

Thompson, Sharyn and Lynette Strangstad. Florida's Historic Cemeteries, A Preservation Handbook. Tallahassee: Historic Tallahassee Preservation Board, 1989.

Oehrlein, Mary L. Vieux Carré Masonry Maintenance Guidelines. New Orleans: Vieux Carré Commission, 1977. Rev. ed. 1980.

United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Technical Preservation Services has prepared 44 Historic Preservation Briefs on material conservation of the built environment as well as protection of cultural landscapes. A list of these Briefs for ordering or viewing on line is available at:

Weeks, Kay D. and Anne E. Grimmer. The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Guidelines for Preserving, Rehabilitating, Restoring & Reconstructing Historic Buildings. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1995.

Wood Swofford & Associates with Frank Matero. The Cenotaphs of Congressional Cemetery: Recommendations for Rehabilitation and Repair. Washington: Department of Veteran Affairs,National Cemetery Administration, 1999.

Burial Ground and Cemetery History, General and Pennsylvania

Coffin, Margaret M. Death in Early America. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1976.

Farrell, J. Inventing the American Way of Death.. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980.

Jackson, Kenneth T. and Camilo José Vergara. Silent Cities: The Evolution of the American Cemetery. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1989.

Keels, Thomas H. Images of America: Philadelphia Graveyards and Cemeteries. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2003.

Marion, John Francis. Famous and Curious Cemeteries: A Pictorial, Historical and Anecdotal View of American and European Cemeteries and the Famous and Infamous People who are Buried There. New York: Crown Publishers, 1977.

Meyer, Richard E. Cemeteries and Gravemarkers: Voices of American Culture. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1989.

Notman, John. Guide to Laurel Hill Cemetery, near Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Laurel Hill Cemetery, 1854.

Rew, Kay Jenkins."The LeMoyne House," Pennsylvania Turnpike Newsletter (Fall 1998): 12.

Sloane, David. The Last Great Necessity: Cemeteries in American History. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1995.

Thomas, George."The Statue in the Garden." Sculpture of a City: Philadelphia's Treasures in Bronze and Stone.New York: Fairmount Park Art Association, 1974.

Torres, René. Cemetery Landscapes of Philadelphia. Master's Thesis, University of Pennsylvania , 1997.

Ubelaker, Douglas H., and Erica B. Jones, eds. Human Remains from Voegtly Cemetery, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003.

Wolf, Jean K. Lives of the Silent Stones in the Christ Church Burial Ground. 50 Family Profiles.Philadelphia: Christ Church Preservation Trust, 2003.

Pennsylvania Gravestone Iconography

Eberlein, Harold Donaldson and Abbot McClure. The Practical Book of Early American Arts and Crafts. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1916.

Ridlen, Susan. "Tree-Stump Tombstones: Traditional Cultural Values and Rustic Funerary Art." Markers: The Annual Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies 13 (1996): 44-73.

See also general iconography studies, such as:

Ludwig, Allan. Graven Images: New England Stonecarving and its Symbols, 1650-1815. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1966. for a glossary of Victorian cemetery symbolism.

Pennsylvania Germans

Graves, Thomas. "Pennsylvania German Gravestones: An Introduction." Journal of the Association of Gravestone Studies. Markers 5 (1988):60-95.

Lichten, Frances. Folk Art of Rural Pennsylvania. London: Charles Scribner's Son's Ltd., 1946.

Schultze, Augustus. "Guide to the Old Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem, Pa., 1742-1910." Lancaster, Pa.: The Pennsylvania-German Society, 1912.

Stoudt, John Joseph. Sunbonnets and Shoofly Pies:A Pennsylvania Dutch Cultural History. New York: A. S. Barnes and Co., 1973.

Native American Burial Places

Cadzow, Donald A. Archeological Studies of the Susquehannock Indians of Pennsylvania. Safe Harbor Report No. 2, PHMC 3. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical Museum Commission, 1936.

Eshleman, Henry Frank. Lancaster County Indians: Annals of the Susquehannocks and other Indian Tribes of the Susquehanna Territory from about the year 1500 to 1763, the Date of their Extinction: and Exhaustive and Interesting Series of Historical Papers Descriptive of Lancaster County's Indians Prior to and During the Advent of the Paleface. Lewisburg, Pa: Wennawoods Pub., 2000

Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus.History, Manners and Customs of the Indian Nations who once Inhabited Pennsylvania and Neighboring States. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1876.

Kent, Barry C. Susquehanna's Indians. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1989.

Stilgoe, John R. Common Landscape of America, 1580-1845. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.

Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians: The Northeast, 15. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute, 1978. on Adena mounds and Indians Indian news source.

Jewish Cemeteries

Elmaleh, Leon and J. Bunford Samuel. The Jewish Cemetery: Ninth and Spruce Streets, Philadelphia. Philadelphia: 1906. Revised 1962.

Kurzweil, Arthur.From Generation to Generation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

Gradwohl, David Meyer. "Sephardic Jewish Cemeteries in the Caribbean and Eastern United States." Journal of the Association of Gravestone Studies. Markers 15 (1998):1-29.

Tobias, Thomas J. "Tombstones that Tell a Story," The Journal of Southern Jewish Historical Quarterly (1958).

Wolf, Edwin and Maxwell Whiteman. The History of the Jews of Philadelphia from Colonial Times to the Age of Jackson. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1975. information on Mikveh Israel

African-American Burial Locations and Information

Rose, James and Alice Eichholz. Black Genesis. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1978.

Wilson, Benjamin. The History of Eden Cemetery . Philadelphia: Historic Eden Cemetery Company, nd. "Soul Trek," article on burial locations of African Americans in Philadelphia. history of Mother Bethel A.M.E Church and founder Richard Allen about teaching and Cemeteries for information on LeMoyne House of Dr. Francis Julius LeMoyne.

Other Resources